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Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics

NCIDOSE is the collection of tools and data for medical radiation dosimetry developed by radiation physicists at the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics of the National Cancer Institute. The resources are based on years of research and development in collaboration with a number of research institutions and clinical centers. This website is intended to distribute the tools free of charge for research purposes. The following resources are currently available:

Computational Phantoms and Monte Carlo Method
Computational Phantoms + Monte Carlo Method

Anyone who is interested in obtaining these resources for research can go to the Agreement tab and submit the Software Transfer Agreement to the NCI Technology Transfer Center. Once the agreement is approved, please contact Dr. Choonsik Lee. All data and tools will be available free of charge for research purpose.

Parties interested in commercial use of any materials on this website may contact Dr. Kevin Chang at the NCI Technology Transfer Center to discuss licensing process.

NCIPhantom cover photo

The role of computational representation of human anatomy, called computational human phantoms, in researches of medical radiation and radiation protection becomes more and more critical. NCIPHANTOM is a library of computational human phantoms representing reference anatomy of children and adults with various body sizes.


The NCIPHANTOM library was created 100% based on patient images carefully selected from more than 1,000 CT image sets to make sure the anatomical realism1,2. A number of organs and tissues were manually segmented and reviewed by clinical radiologists. The NCIPHANTOM library has several detailed anatomical structures including lymphatic nodes3,4, the heart with substructures, the brain with substructures5, etc. Those detailed models were developed based on patient CT images through months of manual contouring to achieve the best anatomical realism incorporated into the NCIPHANTOM library. The extended phantom library was also created representing a total of 370 pediatric and adult individuals with different height and weight.2

Pediatric and adult references
Reference size pediatric and adult NCIPHANTOM series
Adult male phantoms
A series of the adult male phantoms at 175 cm high and different weights, 60 - 130 kg


Once developed from patient CT images, the NCIPHANTOM library was adjusted to match several international reference data including international reference body sizes6, reference organ mass6, reference elemental composition6,7, and reference dimension data of gastro-intestine structures8. The anatomical structures of the reference children phantom series were adopted as international reference by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).


The NCIPHANTOM library can be imported to different types of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes including MCNPX, MCNP6, GEANT4, etc. Main input deck for those codes is also available for research purpose. The NCIPHANTOM library also has been converted to DICOM-RT format which is compatible with commercial treatment planning systems. Detailed anatomical structures are converted to DICOM-CT images with realistic Hounsfield Unit. A total of 100+ organs and tissues are also directly imported into TPS in the format of DICOM-structure. Users will immediately evaluate dose to multiple organs and tissues on TPS once beam planning is completed.

Male phantom in Eclipse TPS
Adult male phantom imported into Eclipse TPS for prostate treatment simulation


  1. Lee C, Lodwick D, Hurtado J, Pafundi D, Williams JL, Bolch WE. The UF family of reference hybrid phantoms for computational radiation dosimetry. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55(2):339-363.
  2. Geyer AM, O’Reilly S, Lee C, Long DJ, Bolch WE. The UF/NCI family of hybrid computational phantoms representing the current US population of male and female children, adolescents, and adults--application to CT dosimetry. 2014;59(18):5225-5242.
  3. Lee C, Lamart S, Moroz BE. Computational lymphatic node models in pediatric and adult hybrid phantoms for radiation dosimetry. Phys Med Biol. 2013;58(5):N59--N82.
  4. Lee C, Kaufman K, Pafundi DH, Bolch WE. An Algorithm for Lymphatic Node Placement in Hybrid Computational Phantoms: Applications to Radionuclide Therapy Dosimetry. Proc IEEE. 2009;97(12):2098-2108. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2009.2025399.
  5. Villoing D, McMillan D, Kim KP, et al. Korean pediatric and adult head computational phantoms and application to photon specific absorbed fractions calculations. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. February 2017:1-8. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncx009.
  6. ICRP. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection : reference values. ICRP Publ 89 Ann ICRP. 2002;32(3-4):1-277.
  7. ICRU. Photon, Electron, Proton and Neutron Interaction Data for Body Tissues. Bethesda, MD: International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements; 1992.
  8. ICRP. Human alimentary tract model for radiological protection. ICRP Publ 100 Ann ICRP. 2006;36(1-2):1-336. doi:10.1016/j.icrp.2006.03.004.

Although computed tomography (CT) provides great benefits to patients, it has been always of importance to balance benefit and potential risk especially in pediatric patients who are more sensitive to radiation. National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for Computed Tomography (NCICT)1 is a computational solution to estimate organ doses for pediatric and adult patients undergoing Computed Tomography (CT) scans.


The program provides absorbed dose to major radiosensitive organs and tissues based on the characteristics of patients and CT scan parameters. NCICT is based on several key technologies that were previously published including computational human phantoms and the simulation of X-ray from a reference CT scanner. The simulation results were rigorously validated by experimental dose measurements, which were also published in peer-reviewed journals2,3.

Simulation of helical x-ray with adult female phantom
Simulation of helical x-ray source in CT scanner combined with an adult female phantom
Physical phantoms used to validate organ doses
Anthropomorphic physical phantoms used to validate organ dose simulated in NCICT


The computational human phantoms, one of the key components in CT dose calculators, used in NCICT comply several international standard data obtained from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)4,5 such as reference organ mass, elemental composition, and gastro-intestinal dimensions. The anatomical structure in the pediatric phantom series is now adopted by ICRP as an international standard.


Some data involved in patient imaging are considered Protected Health Information (PHI). Even anonymized data often tend to be prohibited from being transferred outside the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). NCICT is running on a personal computer standalone. Users do not have to send any sensitive patient data to central servers, which do not even exist for running NCICT. Users do not need an internet connection to run NCICT.

Screenshot of NCICT graphical user interface
The graphical user interface of NCICT showing organ dose calculation for the head scan of a
newborn female computational phantom


NCICT features two computation modes: Graphical User Interface (GUI) mode and Batch Calculation mode. The GUI Mode is for users to interactively input patient and CT scanner data into NCICT and calculate organ doses instantly with simple graphs. The Batch Calculation mode is designed to compute organ doses for a large number of patients by importing a set of parameters in formatted text file. The Batch Calculation mode is also running by text command, which makes it easy to port NCICT to existing data abstraction systems.


NCICT was tested by more than 100 beta users worldwide whose feedbacks were incorporated into several revisions. Since 2010, NCICT has been utilized by numerous medical radiation researchers worldwide for their research and publications.6–21


  1. Lee C, Kim KP, Bolch WE, Moroz BE, Les Folio. NCICT: a computational solution to estimate organ doses for pediatric and adult patients undergoing CT scans. J Radiol Prot. 2015;35(4):891-909. doi:10.1088/0952-4746/35/4/891.
  2. Long DJ, Lee C, Tien C, et al. Monte Carlo simulations of adult and pediatric computed tomography exams: Validation studies of organ doses with physical phantoms. Med Phys. 2013;40(1):13901. doi:10.1118/1.4771934.
  3. Dabin J, Mencarelli A, McMillan D, Romanyukha A, Struelens L, Lee C. Validation of calculation algorithms for organ doses in CT by measurements on a 5 year old paediatric phantom. Phys Med Biol. 2016;61(11):4168-4182. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/61/11/4168.
  4. ICRP. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection : reference values. ICRP Publ 89 Ann ICRP. 2002;32(3-4):1-277.
  5. ICRP. Human alimentary tract model for radiological protection. ICRP Publ 100 Ann ICRP. 2006;36(1-2):1-336. doi:10.1016/j.icrp.2006.03.004.
  6. Pokora R, Krille L, Dreger S, et al. Computed Tomography in Germany. Dtsch Arzteblatt Int. 2016;113:1-9. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2016.0.
  7. Olerud HM, Toft B, Flatabø S, Jahnen A, Lee C, Thierry-Chef I. Reconstruction of paediatric organ doses from axial CT scans performed in the 1990s – range of doses as input to uncertainty estimates. Eur Radiol. January 2016:1-8. doi:10.1007/s00330-015-4157-6.
  8. Meulepas JM, Ronckers C e cile M, Smets AMJB, et al. Leukemia and brain tumors among children after radiation exposure from CT scans: design and methodological opportunities of the Dutch Pediatric CT Study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2014;29:293-301. doi:10.1007/s10654-014-9900-9.
  9. de Basea MB, Pearce MS, Kesminiene A, et al. EPI-CT: design, challenges and epidemiological methods of an international study on cancer risk after paediatric and young adult CT. J Radiol Prot. 2015;35(3):611-628. doi:10.1088/0952-4746/35/3/611.
  10. Thierry-Chef I, Dabin J e r e mie, Friberg E, et al. Assessing Organ Doses from Paediatric CT Scans: A Novel Approach for an Epidemiology Study (the EPI-CT Study). Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(2):717-728. doi:10.3390/ijerph10020717.
  11. Pearce MS, Salotti JA, Little MP, et al. Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2012;380(9840):499-505. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60815-0.
  12. Berrington de González A, Journy N, Lee C, et al. No association between radiation dose from pediatric CT scans and risk of subsequent Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. January 2017:cebp.1011.2016-15. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-1011.
  13. Journy NMY, Lee C, Harbron RW, McHugh K, Pearce MS, de Gonza acute lez AB. Projected cancer risks potentially related to past, current, and future practices in paediatric CT in the United Kingdom, 1990–2020. Br J Cancer. 2016;116(1):109-116. doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.351.
  14. Journy NMY, Dreuil S, Boddaert N, et al. Individual radiation exposure from computed tomography: a survey of paediatric practice in French university hospitals, 2010–2013. Eur Radiol. August 2017:1-12. doi:10.1007/s00330-017-5001-y.
  15. Romanyukha A, Les Folio, Lamart S, Simon SL, Lee C. Body size-specific effective dose conversion coefficients for CT scans. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;172(4):ncv511-437. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncv511.
  16. Bahadori A, Miglioretti D, Kruger R, et al. Calculation of Organ Doses for a Large Number of Patients Undergoing CT Examinations. Am J Roentgenol. 2015;205(4):827-833. doi:10.2214/AJR.14.14135.
  17. Lodwick DL, Cooper JN, Adler B, et al. How to identify high radiation burden from computed tomography: an example in obese children. J Surg Res. 2017;217(Supplement C):54-62.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2017.04.031.
  18. Cooper JN, Lodwick DL, Adler B, Lee C, Minneci PC, Deans KJ. Patient characteristics associated with differences in radiation exposure from pediatric abdomen-pelvis CT scans: a quantile regression analysis. Comput Biol Med. 2017;85(Supplement C):7-12. doi:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2017.04.003.
  19. Krille L, Dreger S, Schindel R, et al. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2015;54(1):1-12. doi:10.1007/s00411-014-0580-3.
  20. Lee C, Flynn MJ, Judy PF, Cody DD, Bolch WE, Kruger RL. Body Size–Specific Organ and Effective Doses of Chest CT Screening Examinations of the National Lung Screening Trial. Am J Roentgenol. 2017;208(5):1082-1088. doi:10.2214/AJR.16.16979.
  21. Chang LA, Miller DL, Lee C, et al. Thyroid Radiation Dose to Patients from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures over Eight Decades: 1930–2010. Health Phys. 2017;113(6):458–473. doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000723.


We calculated dose coefficients for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference pediatric phantoms externally exposed to mono-energetic photon radiation (X- and gamma-rays) over a wide energy range. Calculations used Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques. Dose coefficients, i.e., organ absorbed dose per unit air kerma (mGy/mGy), were calculated for 28 organs and tissues including the active marrow (or red bone marrow) for 10 phantoms (newborn, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year old male and female). Radiation exposure was simulated for 33 photon mono-energies (0.01 – 20 MeV) in six irradiation geometries: Anterior-Posterior (AP), Posterior-Anterior (PA), Right Lateral (RLAT), Left Lateral (LLAT), Rotational (ROT), and Isotropic (ISO).

Citation: LA Chang, SL Simon, TJ Jorgensen, DA Schauer, and C Lee, “Organ dose conversion coefficients for pediatric reference individuals exposed to idealized photon radiation,” Journal of Radiological Protection (in press)

External organ and effective dose coefficients
External organ and effective dose coefficients for age-dependent phantoms exposed to
idealized photon beams in different irradiation geometries.


To improve the estimates of organ doses from nuclear medicine procedures using iodine 131 (I-131), we calculated a comprehensive set of I-131 S values, defined as organ absorbed doses in target tissues per unit of nuclear transition in source regions, for different source and target combinations. We used the latest reference adult male and female voxel phantoms published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 110) and the I-131 photon and electron spectra from the ICRP Publication 107 to perform Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using MCNPX2.7 to compute the S values. For each phantom, we simulated 55 source regions assuming a uniform distribution of I-131. We directly computed the S values for 42 target tissues without calculating Specific Absorbed Fraction (SAF) values. From these calculations, we derived a comprehensive set of S values for I-131 for 55 source regions and 42 target tissues in the ICRP male and female voxel phantoms. The new dataset includes the S values for source regions and target tissues of interest in internal dosimetry of I-131, which are not available in the long-used stylized phantoms from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

Citation: S Lamart, SL Simon, A Bouville, BE Moroz, and C Lee, “S values for I-131 from the ICRP adult voxel phantoms and comparison with the previous reference values,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 168:92-110 (2016)

S values for various target organs in the ICRP adult male and female reference phantoms where I-131 is distributed in the source organs.
S values for various target organs in the ICRP adult male and female reference phantoms where
I-131 is distributed in the source organs (thyroid, urinary bladder content, small intestine content, and salivary glands).

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